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ECVO=European College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists​

All animals presented for examination undergo a general examination of the eye and its adnexa. A mydriatic is used for the examination of the deeper structures. 
Details of all lesions and conditions found at the time of examination, whether relating to hereditary eye diseases or not, are drawn and/or written in the descriptive comments section in the middle of the certificate. In the comments section, extra boxes are provided for ticking mild, moderate or severe manifestation of the anomaly, enabling the examiner to indicate the degree/severity/significance of involvement, mainly meant for use in specifying the pectinate ligament abnormality. Eye diseases affecting vision, such as severe retinal dysplasia, cataract, lens luxation, retinal degeneration are always considered as a PIED (Presumed Inherited Eye Diseases).

In the lower part of the form the results of the examination are given. The results are specified in 1-8 for developmental, congenital anomalies, and 11-18 for acquired presumed inherited eye diseases (PIED). The results for congenital diseases are valid throughout the animal’s life, even if the condition is masked and cannot be diagnosed at a higher age. 
Once the examination has been completed, the results are recorded on the certificate, including details of localization and type of any lesion present.

The result of the examination for a PIED can be:
1. Unaffected: which signifies that there is no clinical evidence of the PIED
2. Undetermined: i.e. clinical features that could possibly fit the PIED, but the changes are inconclusive
3. Suspicious: i.e. minor, but specific clinical signs of the PIED. Further development will confirm the diagnosis, and the owner is recommended to present the dog for re-examination after another 6-12 months
4. Affected: which signifies that there is clinical evidence of the PIED.


More information can be found on the 


ECVO: Tares Oculaires Hériditaires

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